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Mucosal Covid Vaccines Advancing, Plus a New Type of Vax in Development (Next Generation Update 16)

This month, most of the news is in mucosal vaccine development again. These vaccines aim to block Covid infection. An aerosol vaccine from Canada is advancing into a mid-stage clinical trial. Plus, an intranasal protein subunit vaccine from Australia is going into a first-in-human clinical trial – the 28th mucosal vaccine to do so. There are some clinical results in this vaccine category, too. Plus, the recently announced international consortium for human challenge trials for mucosal vaccines has already had its first big meeting.

In the “variant-proof” camp, there’s news of a major next generation development of a next generation vaccine! And I’ve added 13 preclinical studies to my collection – almost all for mucosal vaccines.

As usual, I have the news broken down into 3 categories of next-generation Covid vaccines (definitions below).

Mucosal vaccine news

Mucosal Covid vaccine overview:

  • 5 mucosal vaccines are currently authorized for use, at least 1 in each of 6 countries. However, none have been authorized by a drug regulatory agency designated stringent, or listed, by WHO.
  • 28 mucosal vaccines have reached clinical trial, although at least one of those has been discontinued. These are tracked in a table below.
  • In addition to the 5 authorized mucosal vaccines, 4 have reached phase 2 trials, and another 2 have reached phase 2/3 trial.

New this month:

International human challenge consortium kick-off meeting:

In my last update, I wrote about the new funding for this project to develop human challenge studies for mucosal Covid vaccines, called MusiCC, and led by Imperial College London. It’s supported with $57 million from the European Union and CEPI (Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations).

They already had a 2-day meeting in London this month, with over 50 attending in person and another 30 or so online. Details of the discussion haven’t been published as yet. CEPI’s CEO spoke about the role of human challenge studies in achieving CEPI’s goal of a vaccine within 100 days of a new pandemic disease.

The participants included the project’s Scientific Advisory Board – but I haven’t seen a list of the members. The lead investigator has been named: Professor Chris Chiu, from Imperial College London. All the consortium partners haven’t yet been announced either. The only ones I’ve seen mentioned were the oones I mentioned last time: Imperial College London, the University of Antwerp’s Vaccinopolos, and Singapore’s National Centre for Infectious Diseases.

(This month I wrote about some of my thoughts on the ethics of this kind of study in my newsletter.)

CanSino’s Convidecia (China) – more clinical trial results:

This is an inhaled aerosol adenoviral vector vaccine that has been rolled out in several countries, beginning in China in September 2022. As far as I know, no study showing its effect on infection rates has been released.

The latest publication of clinical trial results is for a phase 1/2 trial in 120 people, testing high, medium, and low doses, as well as varied forms (injections and/or inhaled). The highest immune responses came from the combination – an injection followed by an inhlaed dose.

AeroVax (Canada) – inhaled vaccine is advancing to phase 2:

This is an adenovirus-based vaccine developed by McMaster University, using several components of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The goal is to develop a vaccine that is more durable and resistant to new variants, as well as providing mucosal immunity. Originally called ChAd-triCoV/Mac, the phase 2 trial will be run in Canada, for 350 people who have had at least 3 doses of an mRNA Covid vaccine. They will get a single aerosol dose of either the vaccine or a placebo via nebulizer – similar to the delivery system for inhaled asthma drugs. The start is planned for June.

You can learn more about the background to this vaccine from the lead developer here, including a video. (Records in my collection for this vaccine are here.)

Spikogen (Australia) – the latest mucosal vaccine to reach clinical trial:

This one is a protein subunit vaccine which has been in use in Iran as an injection. It’s now going into a phase 1 trial for 100 people in Australia in oral/sublingual form. It’s a blinded crossover trial, with one group getting 2 oral doses of Covid vaccine and crossing over to 2 doses of an oral influenza vaccine. Another group will get the Covid and influenza vaccines combined, with crossover to an inactivated influenza vaccine as control. (My explainer on this type of trial is here.) (Records on this vaccine in mucosal form here.)

New preclinical results:

I’ve added 11 preclinical reports on results for mucosal vaccines to my collection since the last update, including one in the pancoronavirus category below. Other notable studies include:

  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH NIAID) (USA): This is the second report for a viral vector vaccine (based on murine pneumonia virus). After receiving 2 intranasal/intratracheal doses, 3 out of 4 macaques did not get infected in a SARS-CoV-2 challenge, while all the control animals did. (The first study report was also in macaques.)
  • University of Guelph (Canada): This is the second report for a viral vector vaccine (based on Newcastle virus). The study involved intranasal/intratracheal vaccination of macaques. (The first was in hamsters.) The developers concluded that 2 mucosal doses of this vaccine provided “significant protection” against infection, based on a variety of swabs.
  • Oragenics (Canada): This is the first report for an intranasal study of NT-CoV2-1, the protein subunit vaccine developed with Inspirevax and the National Research Council of Canada. Mice received the vaccines intramuscular version, then a group were given an intranasal boost, and all the mice were challenged with SARS-CoV-2. The developers concluded the boost enhanced protection. (Note: I had previously included this in the pancoronavirus table as a major review had included it in that category. However, this paper does not suggest a goal beyond SARS-CoV-2.)
  • National University of Singapore: This paper reports on early experimentation with developing an intranasal mRNA vaccine. The vaccine was tested in mice, and included a lypholized (freeze-dried) version.

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Durable or “variant-proof” vaccine news

This month, I added only one preclinical study report for a vaccine from the Freie Universität Berlin. In this study in mice, the developers tested a version of the vaccine that merged genes from 4 Covid variants (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) in an adenoviral vaccine. They detected signs of immune response to variants including Omicron.

In other news, a developer of the Geovax vaccine told a conference that they expect to see phase 2 results this year. This is the vaccine being tested in people with cancer that I have reported on several times. (Records in my collection for this vax here.)

Note: This is a rather vague category, including vaccines that aim to be more durable. I don’t include a table for tracking these vaccines. That’s because while I’m quite confident I’ve tagged all the vaccines in my collection that fall into the other 2 categories of next generation vaccines, I’m not sure how many can be classified as aiming to be “variant-proof”.

Authorized vaccine:

There is one vaccine in this category that has been authorized by a drug regulatory authority designated by WHO has stringent, or listed – and tested against an mRNA vaccine:

  • LUNAR-COV19 (USA): This self-amplifying mRNA vaccine was authorized in Japan in November 2023.

US Project NextGen-funded trials in this category:

  • Phase 1 for TNX-1800 from Tonix (aiming for lifelong immunity);
  • Gritstone Bio (self-amplifying mRNA).

Neither of these trials has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as yet.

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Pancoronavirus vaccine news

Pancoronavirus vaccines aim to provide protection not only from variants of the SARS virus that causes Covid, but also against the next new coronavirus to spread among humans. This month there is news on technological developments for one vaccine, and a preclinical study report for another 2.

  • VBI Vaccines (Canada) – development news: This vaccine has an ongoing phase 1 clinical trial. The company has announced that $28 million (Canadian) of their grant from the Canadian government will be directed towards developing a next generation of their enveloped virus-like particle vaccine (a type of protein subunit vaccine). They are calling this new platform MLE – for mRNA-launched enveloped. The aim is to reproduce eVLPs in the body.
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison preclinical study report: This preclinical study is the fourth reported for this vaccine. The developers tested versions of the vaccine in mice, including challenge tests for SARS-CoV-2 and several sarbecoviruses.
  • China Cuba Joint Innovation Center: This paper reports on a mucosal version of protein subunit vaccine using protein from the Delta variant. The mice showed signs of immune response to Omicron and the original SARS, but not to MERS and another coronavirus.

Pancoronavirus vaccine overview:

A table below this post keeps track of vaccines I’ve added to this category so far that have publicly available preclinical results.

There are 5 of these vaccines in phase 1 clinical trials:

  • DIOSynVax (Cambridge University spin-off, UK) – mRNA.
  • INSERM/LinkInVax (France) – protein subunit.
  • Osivax (France) – protein subunit.
  • VBI Vaccines (Canada) – eVLP.
  • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR, USA) – protein subunit.

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Addendum 1: List of authorized next generation Covid vaccines (with countries)

There are now 7 next-generation Covid vaccines authorized in 7 countries. Only one has been authorized by a drug regulatory agency designated stringent, or listed, by WHO – it’s in bold. I’ve listed the vaccines in 2 categories, in order of date of first authorization.

Mucosal:

  • Razi-Cov Pars (Iran), intranasal protein subunit vaccine: Iran (October 2021).
  • Sputnik (Russia), intranasal viral vector vaccine: Russia (April 2022).
  • Convidecia (China), inhaled viral vector vaccine: China (September 2022), Morocco (November 2022), Indonesia (March 2023).
  • iNCOVACC (USA/India), intranasal viral vector vaccine: India (September 2022).
  • Pneucolin (China), intranasal viral vector vaccine: China (December 2022).

Self-amplifying mRNA:

  • Gemcovac (India): India (June 2022).
  • LUNAR-COV19 (USA): Japan (November 2023).

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Addendum 2: Table of mucosal vaccines in clinical trials

* Indicates new entry since my previous update post.

Note: Where there is a link to “All records” for a vaccine, that’s in my public Zotero collection for the vaccine, and it may include non-mucosal studies for that vaccine. Notes on that collection are here. For details on how I track Covid vaccine progress to maintain that collection, see my background post.

Vaccine, type, manufacturerMucosal version(s)Phase 1 to 2 clinical trialsPhase 3+ trial(s)Phase 3+ efficacy or immunogenicity results
ACM-001
Protein subunit

ACM Biolabs (Singapore/Switzerland)
(All records)
Intranasal.Phase 1.
Results (press release only)
Ad5-nCoV (Convidecia Air)
Viral vector (adenovirus)

CanSino (China)
(All records)
Inhaled through the mouth using a nebulizer.Phase 1. Results.

Phase 1/2. Results (plus second later preprint).

* Phase 1/2.
Results.

Phase 2 (aged 6-17 years).

Booster adapted for variant.
10,420 people in China (Phase 3).
Results.

1,350 people (Phase 3).

540 people, in Malaysia (Phase 3).

904 people in China (Phase 4).
Results.

360 people (Phase 4).

451 people (Phase 4). Results.
904 people: Comparison after 2-dose course of inactivated vax: Convidecia injection vs inhaled, protein subunit, or CoronaVac booster (Phase 4 results). Both injected & inhaled Convidecia had stronger impact on signs of immunity than the others; response after inhaled version was slower but longer-lasting than injected (which peaked then declined from day 14), better for Omicron though not as good for original virus. No measure of mucosal immunity used.

451 people: Comparison of different versions adapted for variant, including a bivalent version. Booster of inhaled Convidecia after previous vaccination with inactivated vaccine. Signs of immune response to Omicron were higher for the bivalent vaccine, though lower for the original SARS-CoV-2 strain.
Ad5-S
Viral vector (adenovirus)

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease/Guangzhou Enbao Biomedical Technology Co (China)
(All records)

Intranasal.Infection prevention study.
AdCOVID
Viral vector (adenovirus)

AltImmune (USA)
(All records)
Intranasal.Phase 1Results – press release only.

Discontinued after phase 1.
AdS+N
Viral vector (adenovirus)

ImmunityBio (USA)
(All records)

Intranasal, oral capsule, or sublingual.Phase 1 (oral).

Phase 1 (sublingual).
AeroVax (Ad5-triCoV)
Viral vector (adenovirus)

McMaster University/Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Canada)
* (All records)
Aerosol.Phase 1 (& ChAd-triCoV/Mac).

*Phase 2.
Avacc 10
Protein subunit

Intravacc (Netherlands)
(All records)
Intranasal.Phase 1.
Results (press release only)
bacTRL-Spike-1
Live attenuated

Symvivo (Canada)
(All records)
Oral.Phase 1.
BBV154 (iNCOVACC)
Viral vector (adenovirus)

Bharat Biotech (India)
(All records)

This vaccine is ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S
Washington University in St Louis (USA)
(All records)

Intranasal.Phase 1.

Phase 2.

Small amount of data from these trials in the drug product information.

Phase 2/3.

Phase 2.
In India, 2-dose course of BBV154 vs 2-dose course of injected Covaxin inactivated vaccine (Phase 3 – and here).
Results (previously in preprint).

See also the drug product information.

875 people in India, booster trial (Phase 3).
2,971 previously unvaxed people were assigned for the intranasal iNCOVACC, 161 for injected Covaxin. This trial did not aim to assess disease outcomes. It took place during the first Omicron wave.

Signs of immune response were higher for iNCOVACC than Covaxin.

Adverse events rate very low (5% local and 3% systemic) – lower than for comparison group.
B/​HPIV3/​S-6P
Viral vector (parainfluenza)

NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) (USA)
(All records)
Intranasal.Phase 1.
BV-AdCoV-1
Viral vector (adenovirus)

Wuhan BravoVax
(China)
(All records)
Inhaled through the mouth using a nebulizer.Phase 1.
ChAdOx1
Viral vector (adenovirus)

Oxford University (UK)
(This is the AstraZeneca vax)
(All records)
Intranasal.Phase 1.

Phase 1.

Results.
CoV2-OGEN1
Protein subunit

US Specialty Formulations/VaxForm (USA)
(All records)
Oral.Phase 1.
(Fully recruited, final dose in November 2022.)
Press release stating successful (without data) and progressing to phase 2 trial.
COVI-VAC
Live attenuated

Codagenix (USA, with the Serum Institute of India)
(All records)
Intranasal.
Phase 1.
Press release in 2021 stating successful (without data) and progressing to phase 2/3.
Preliminary results (conference abstract in 2021) and in a 2022 press release.
Results in 2023 (press release only).

Phase 1 (booster).
Phase 2/3, as part of the WHO Solidarity Trial for Vaccines in Mali. (Protocol.)
CVXGA1-001
Viral vector (parainfluenza)

CyanVac/Blue Lake Tech (USA)
(All records)
Intranasal.Phase 1.
Phase 2.
DNS1-RBD (Pneucolin)
Viral vector (influenza)

Beijing Wantai BioPharm (China)
(All records)
Intranasal.Phase 1.
Phase 2.
Joint results.
30,990 participants in Colombia, Philippines, South Africa, Vietnam.
Results (previously in preprint.)

5,400 participants in Ghana (Phase 3).
Comparison of 2 doses of intranasal vaccine 14 days apart, with placebo control, during circulation of Omicron. Included >13,000 previously unvaccinated people.

Efficacy shown 90 days after 2nd dose. There was some decline at 180 days.

Efficacy against symptomatic Covid:
No previous vax: 55.2% (CI 13.8 to 76.7)
Inactivated: 38.2% (CI -49.2 to 74.4)
Viral vector: 39.9% (CI -16.7 to 69.1)
mRNA: 10.1% (CI -45.9 to 44.5)

Efficacy against severe Covid:
No previous vax: 66.7% (CI 8.3 to 87.9)
Inactivated: 54.6% (CI -47.3 to 86.0)
Viral vector: 50.0% (CI -6.8 to 76.6)
mRNA: 19.5% (CI -39.2 to 53.4)

Efficacy against hospitalization:
100% (CI -9.2 to 100)

Adverse events were very low – similar to placebo. Less than 8% of people had a runny and/or blocked nose or sore throat.
GAM-COVID-VAC (rAd26-S – Sputnik Light)
Viral vector (adenovirus)

Gamaleya Research Institute (Russia)
Intranasal.Phase 1/2
7,000 participants in Russia (Phase 3 or phase 2/3 – not clear).
Mambisa
Protein subunit

Centre for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology (CIGB) (Cuba)
(All records)
Intranasal drops.Phase 1/2.

Phase 1/2.
Results (report of a conference presentation).

Phase 2.
MV-014-212
Viral vector
(RSV)

Meissa Vaccines (USA)
(All records)
Intranasal drops or spray. Phase 1.
Results (press release).
This vaccine is in limbo because of the company’s financial difficulties.
MVA-SARS-2ST
Viral vector (MVA)

German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF)/IDT Biologika
(All records)
Inhalation.Phase 1.
NDV-HXP-S
Viral vector (Newcastle Disease Virus)

Castlevax/Icahn Mt Sinai
(All records)
Intranasal.Phase 1.
Results (press release).
Patria (NDV-HXP-S/AVX-COVID-12-HEXAPRO)
Viral vector (Newcastle Disease Virus)

Laboratorio Avi-Mex (Mexico)
(All records on Patria, see NDV-HXP-S above for early development.)

Intranasal.Phase 1.
Results.

Phase 2.
Results.
Phase 2/3 for injected version only: Results.
PRAK-03202
Protein subunit

Oravax (USA) [Oravax was established by OraMed (Israel) to develop this vaccine, using Premas Biotech’s PRAK-03202 and their oral vaccine technology]
(All records on oral PRAK-03202, and on intramuscular version)
Oral.Phase 1 (in South Africa).
Results (press release only).
Razi-Cov Pars
Protein subunit

Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute (Iran)
(All records)
Intranasal (third dose after 2 injections).Phase 1.
Results.

Phase 2.
Results.

Phase 1 to 2 (in 12-17 year-olds).

Phase 4 (Booster).

Phase 1 to 2 (in 5-17 year-olds).
41,128 people in Iran, comparing the 3-dose course to 2-dose inactivated Sinopharm Beijing vax, only partially randomized (Phase 3).
Results
(Previous media report for the first 24,000 participants.)
The authors concluded Razi-Cov Pars was non-inferior to the inactivated vaccine, with similarly very low adverse events. However, the trial could not establish whether there was an advantage to an intranasal dose.
SC-Ad6-1
Viral vector (adenovirus)

Moat Bio/Tetherex (USA)
(All records)
Intranasal and inhaled.Phase 1.
Trial expanded to add an inhaled version (from 130 to 190 people). Results so far briefly mentioned in press release.
* SpikoGen
Protein subunit

Vaxine (Australia)

(All records on mucosal and on all forms.)

Oral/sublingual.Phase 1.
(Unnamed)
Inactivated bacteria

DreamTec (Hong Kong)
(All records)
Oral.Phase 1.
Phase 1.
Phase 1.

Note: An article of preclinical results has been retracted over lack of ethics committee approval.
VXA-CoV2-1/VXA-CoV2-1.1-S
Viral vector
(adenovirus)

Vaxart (USA)
(All records)
Tablets.Phase 1.
Results.

Phase 2. (Recruiting: started October 1, 2021.)
Results (press release).
Omicron adaptation was developed for an Omicron challenge trial, originally planned for second half of 2023.

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Addendum 3: Pancoronavirus vaccines with preclinical results

* Indicates new entry since previous update post.

Developer
Country

Vaccine name
Type of:

Vaccine

Coronavirus
Preclinical resultsClinical trial status
Academia Sinica Taiwan
(Taiwan)

(Unnamed)
mRNA

All
Non-primate
Beijing University of Chemical Technology
(China)

(Unnamed)
Live attenuated pangolin coronavirus

All
Non-primate
California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
USA

Mosaic-8b
Protein subunit

Beta
Non-primate

Non-primate

Non-primate

Primate, non-primate

Primate, non-primate
Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Germany

NILV-PanCoVac
Viral vector

All
Non-primate (mucosal)
* China Cuba Joint Innovation Center
China, Cuba

Unnamed
Protein subunit

Sarbeco
Non-primate (mucosal)
Codiak
USA

exoVACC Pan Beta Coronavirus
Protein subunit

Beta
Article on development

Non-primate (conference slides)

Non-primate
(conference slides)
(This company began proceedings
in bankruptcy court. See news.)
DIOSynvax
UK

DIOS-CoVax/
pEVAC-PS
mRNA

Sarbeco
Non-primate

Non-primate
Phase 1 trial (incl. protocol)
(Up to 36 participants in the UK)
Began December 2021.
Fully recruited.
Expanded to another city – no trial register entry found.
Duke University
USA

RBD–scNP
Protein subunit

Beta
Primate

Primate

Primate, non-primate

Non-primate (previously in preprint)

Primate, non-primate
Francis Crick Institute
UK

(Unnamed)
Protein subunit with DNA boost

All
Non-primate
Fudan University
China

HR1LS
Protein subunit

Sarbeco
Primate, non-primate

Primate

Primate

Non-primate
Guangdong Pharmaceutical University
China

(Unnamed)
Protein subunit

All
Non-primate
INSERM Vaccine Research Institute/LinKinVax
France

PanCov (CD40.CoV2/RBDv)
Protein subunit
Sarbeco
Non-primate

Primate, non-primate

Primate

Non-primate (conference poster)
Phase 1/2 trial
(Up to 240 participants in France)
Booster trial, planned to start recruiting in February 2024.
Osivax
France

OVX033
Protein subunit

Sarbeco
Non-primatePhase 1 trial
(48 participants in France)
First participant vaccinated in February 2024.
Pennsylvania State University
USA

(Unnamed)
Protein subunit

All
Non-primate
Scripps Research Institute
USA

(Unnamed)
Protein subunit

Beta


Non-primate
SK Bioscience/ Uni of Washington/Uni of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
South Korea, USA

GBP511
Protein subunit

Sarbeco
Primate, non-primate (testing Covid vaccine GBP510 against other sarbecoviruses)
More on plans for adapting this vaccine – GBP510 authorized as SKYCovione. See the University of Washington research listed below in this table.
Stanford University
USA

DCFHP-alum
Protein subunit

Sarbeco
Primate
Erratum (correction to legend in a figure).

Non-primate
Sun Yat-Sen University
China

(Unnamed)
Protein subunit

Sarbeco
Non-primate
University of California Irvine/Techimmune
USA

(Unnamed)
Viral vector

Beta
Non-primate (previously in preprint)

Non-primate (mucosal) (previously in preprint)

Non-primate

(There was also a paper about this vaccine’s development in 2021.)
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
USA

(Unnamed)
Viral vector

Sarbeco
Non-primate
University of Toronto
Canada

(Unnamed)
Protein subunit

Sarbeco
Non-primate
University of Washington
USA

(Unnamed)
Protein subunit

Sarbeco
Non-primate
(Previously in preprint)

Non-primate

Non-primate (MERS vaccine developed on the same platform as GBP511.)
(See “GBP511” above in this table.)
University of Wisconsin-Madison (PanCorVac)
USA

(Unnamed)
Protein subunit

All
Non-primate

Non-primate

Non-primate

* Non-primate
VBI Vaccines
Canada

VBI-2901
eVLP

All
Non-primate

Non-primate (Press release)
Phase 1 trial
(103 participants in Canada)
Began October 2022.
Fully recruited.
(Further background info.)
Results (press release only).
(101 participants)
Previously vaccinated people boosted with 2 low or high doses, or 1 high-dose. Limited data reported. Some signs of immune response to a range of coronaviruses, mostly lasting at least 5 months. No major safety concerns.
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR)
USA

SpFN 1B-06-PL
Protein subunit

Beta
Non-primate

Non-primate

Non-primate (incl RFN)

Non-primate

Primate

Primate

Primate (with J&J vax)
Phase 1 trial
(29 participants in the US)
Began April 2021.
Results described as “positive” – no data reported yet.
Additional detail on phase 1 trial.
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR)
USA

RFN
Protein subunit

Beta
Non-primate (incl SpFN)

Primate
Yale University
USA

(Unnamed)
mRNA

All
Non-primate

Non-primate
Yale University/Xanadu Bio
USA

(Unnamed)
Protein subunit, intranasal booster

Sarbeco
Non-primate

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Addendum 4: Definitions of vaccine types

  • Mucosal vaccines: These enter the body the way the virus does – through mucosal tissues. It’s hoped that provides defence against infection. They can be administered via different routes – squirts or drops in the nose, inhaled through the mouth through a nebulizer (similar to an asthma medication), or in tablet, capsule, or sublingual form.
  • Pan-SARS-CoV-2 or “variant-proof” vaccines: These aim to provide protection against any variant of the coronavirus that causes Covid-19 – including future variants. I include vaccines that aim for greater durability in this group.
  • Pancoronavirus can be targeted to:
    • the “subgroup” the 2 SARS viruses came from (the sarbecovirus subgenus),
    • coronaviruses from the next level up (the genus, betacoronavirus, which includes lethal diseases like MERS, as well as common cold viruses), or
    • the whole coronavirus family – it has 4 genuses, including betacoronavirus and alphacoronavirus (with more common cold viruses).

I classify a vaccine as a pancoronavirus one when the developers are explicitly targeting coronaviruses more broadly than SARS-CoV-2, and have tested for signs of response to non-SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus(es) (or clearly plan to).

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You can keep up with my work at my newsletter, Living With Evidence. And I’m active on Mastodon: @hildabast@mastodon.online 

~~~~

For details on how I track Covid vaccine progress, see my background post. Notes on my collection of studies are here. The collection is in a public Zotero library you can dig into here.

Previous update posts on next generation Covid vaccines:

  1. Mucosal vaccines (March 2022)
  2. Pan-SARS-Cov-2 and pancoronavirus (July 2022)
  3. Mucosal vaccines (July 2022)
  4. Mucosal vaccines (September 2022)
  5. Mucosal vaccines (April 2023)
  6. Pancoronavirus vaccines (April 2023)
  7. Next generation (May 2023)
  8. Next generation (June 2023)
  9. Next generation (July 2023)
  10. Next generation (August 2023)
  11. Next generation (September 2023)
  12. Next generation (November 2023)
  13. Next generation (January 2024)
  14. Next generation (February 2024)
  15. Next generation (March 2024)


All my Absolutely Maybe Covid-19 vaccine posts

All previous Covid-19 posts at Absolutely Maybe

My posts at The Atlanticat WIRED, and debunking posts at my personal website.

Disclosures: My interest in Covid-19 vaccine trials is as a person worried about the virus, as my son is immunocompromised: I have no financial or professional interest in the vaccines. I have worked for an institute of the NIH in the past, but not the one working on vaccines (NIAID). More about me.

The cartoon is my own (CC BY-NC-ND license). (More cartoons at Statistically Funny.)

Discussion
  1. thank you for your update as always! Will be tweeting your article so more people can follow

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